ARISTOTELIS – POLITIKA 16th section (C. 1, 3-4/ 6/ 12)

The citizen is not a citizen on the grounds that it is established in a specific place (Why slaves and metics and share (with citizens) a common place), Neither (are citizens) those who (from all the political rights) they only have the right to appear at the Court as defendants and plaintiffs (Why have this right and those who share (a place) Thanks to special agreements)· … The precise meaning of the word with nothing else is defined as a citizen than with the participation of the judicial functions, in postulates. ...
So what is the citizen, of them becomes obvious· to whoever that is there is the possibility to participate in politics and judiciary saying that is no longer a citizen of that town and city from another is, to put it in General, the total of such individuals, that is enough for ensuring self-sufficiency in their lives.
oIkein, metics, oIkisews < oIkew-w < oIkos < Foik-St: colony, colonization, apoikistikos, Administration, Commander, rent, lodger, home ownership, residence, resident, metoikesia, transplantation, metic, House, Lodge, populating, resident, House, settlement, household, family, host, Builder, environmentalism environmentalist, economy, housekeeper, plot, House, coat of arms, challenged, household effects, ecosystem, an intern, Ecumene, Parikia, paroikos, Perioeci, apartment house, cohabitation, roommate, synenoikos, District.
douloi < doulos (•) ( dos- a terzidou· with elimination of the σ > construction-a terzidou· with syneresis > doulos): adoyleytos, adoylwtos, job, bondage, human trafficking, slave trade, doylemporos, worker, servile, servility, doyloktimonas, doyloktitikos, serfdom, SERF, servility, obsequious, doylofrosyni, ethelodoylia, done, ypodoylos, enslavement.
koinwnousi, koinwnein < koinwnew-w < koinwnos < common ((I). koinwnes- + conclusion – Oh· with the Elimination of σ and syneresis > koinwnew > koinwnw): unsociable, axiokoinwnitos, contact, common (it), commune, Parliament, share alike, notification, Commonwealth, Consortium, Community, Community, banality, shared, koinwnima, κοινωνία, social, sociability, Sociology, sociologist, partaker, charitable, transportation, transportation consultant.
the righteous, as, a fair < δίκη < righteous (= the one who eylabeitai the legitimate, the mainstream): adikaiwtos adikastos, injustice, unrighteous, litigation, other party, διαδικασία, party, claiming, assertive, dikaiikos, δίκαιο (it), jurisdiction, excuse, righteous, δικαιοσύνη, δικαίωμα, dikaiwmatikos, vindication, forensic, trial date, Court, judge, δικαστικός, δίκη, practicing law, bar, Attorney, file, notice, dikolabos, proceedings, adjudication, revenge, vengeful, sentencing, convict, chicanery, strepsodikos, trade unionist, overall, stand, filodikia, 's litigious, fygodikia, fugitive, same token,.
participants, ypechein < echw ((I). t.c.-, ech-, Fig-, Follo-> formation-): akathektos, sequence, from the sidelines, Armistice, tolerant, poverty, tolerance, abstinence, ignorant, beneficiary, Graduate, enochikos, guilty, six, following, countryside, era, recessed, Wellness, wassail, efektikos, confidentiality, echemythos, sugary, auriga, possession, scrubby, cachexia, kliroychia, kliroychos, intoxication, downside, defective as, impairment, share, was, shareholder, strenghened, fortification, providing, provider, container, comprehensive, area, advantage, advantageous, greed, ledge, privileged, careful, Graduate, rabdoychos, skiptoychos, sokolatoychos, contract, then, consistency, retired, raft, Drawing Board, Designer, plan, almost, relationship, germane, shape, schimatikos, pedantic, school, school, European Cup:.

No < its + ἄrchw:
anarchy, anarchist, non-existent, nothingness, beginnings, archaic, ancient, antiquity, Beginner, Aboriginal, Archive, archetypal, beginning, HQ, leadership, head, archiatros, original, Chef, Architect, archomanis, archomania, archontariki, Lord, seigniorial, adj., autonomy, headmaster, Forest Service, body, dyarchia, opening, launch, province, sub-prefect, a manufactory, Hipparchus, registrants, Bandit leader, lykeiarchis, Division, moirarchos, Admiral, Prefect, Patriarchate, Patriarch, discipline, master, stationmaster, Marshal, coexistence, Brigade, Brigadier General, yparktikos, existing, existence, Deputy Chief, yparchos, feudalism, feudal Lord.
symbols < syn + defer: adiablitos, doubt, anablitikos, postponement, unexcelled, outcast, immune, valve, Ballistic, baltos, range, needle, arrow, projectile, shot, Fireball, Volos, diablitos, slander, emblem, RAM, imposing, eymetabolos, payment, fulminating, stoning, entry fee, environment, problem, view, offensive, attack, shooting, contribution, symbol, shot put, overkill, evocative.

ἁplws < ἁplous:
just, aplografia, aploepeia, simplistic, aploϊkotita, simplification, simple, simplification, simplistic, just (= only).

orizetai < orizomai
( oros· (I). orid- + affix-j + conclusion – Oh > orizw): adioristos, undefined, flux, vagueness, aoristologikos, simple past tense, aphorism, aforistikos, appointment, exile, exile, specified, determining, border, marginal, setting, horizontal, headlamp, limit, delimitation, set, final, finalized, definitive, borderland, limitation, limiting, presetting, destination, determination, attributive, border, frontier.
judgement, kritikis < judge: indiscretion, adieykrinistos, inquest, inquisitorial, response, correspondent, response, apokritikos, distinction, distinctive, tact, clarification, adoption, well-respected, secretion, criticism, critical, sharpness, sharp, pity (it), judge, crisis, critical, criticality, criterion, judge, review, critic, qualifying, qualification, prokritos, comparison, comparison, hypocrisy, hypocrite, Smarmy.
estin, power, is < eImi (r. es-, MI-ending· with assimilation > em-mi· with simplification and antektasi > eImi): Jejune, in the absence of, exoysiastikos, unessential, esthlos, etymology, etymologikos, etymon, consubstantial, being (it), Ontology, ontological, ontological, Indeed, essence, virtual, essential, present, parontikos, presence, appearance, quintessence, estate, perioysiakos, chosen.
faneron < Shew: obscurity, dormant, shambles, transparency, transparent, apparent, emphasis, surface, epiphanes, semblance, apparent, perifanis, sycophant, sycophantic, pride, proud, faeinos, ostensible, phenomenon, Lantern, overt, lamp, fantasy, whimsical, fantasy, Ghost, fantasmagorikos, Imaging, range, light.
do, eIpein < I say ((I). leg-, Fere-, ere-, Fre-> re-> ri-, Fer-, Fep- > eIp-): ratio, analog, anantilektos, unsaid, apologetic, apology, private, arimatikos, irrational, forestry, dialect, Lecture, sorting, interactive, dialogue, Dyslexic, Dyslexia, ellogos, EPIC, selective, Select, option, epilogikos, epilogue, adverb, saga, epyllio, theologian, idiolektos, list, literal, literally, lexical, Word, lexemes, Dictionary, lexicographer, vocabulary, lexipenia, logic, sane, λόγος, meteorology, weather, monosyllabic, monologue, confession, irrational, courage, Chatterbox, Foreword, verb, Maxim, saying (it), orator, oratorical, explicit, clause, collection, collective, Club, conversation, accounting officer.
Ikanon < Ikneomai-oumai: unattainable, detection, arrival, elucidation, attainable, satisfaction, satisfactory, able, ability, supplication, iketeytikos, suppliant, Tracker, trace, task, dowry.


aytarkeian < aytos + ἀrkew-w < ἄrkos ((I). ἀrkes- + conclusion – Oh· with elimination of s. > ἀrkew· with syneresis > ἀrkw): enough, self-sufficiency, self-sufficient, oligarkeia, frugal, failure, inadequate, duration, constant, adequacy, sufficient.


his life < ziw-w: revitalization, exhilarated, welfare, zisi, painting, painting, painted, painter, zodiacal, Zodiac sign, life, perkiness, snappy, snappiness, animal, vitality, alive, animal, life-giving, giver of life, zoology, Zoo, lifegiving, Vita, vitality, bug, brutish, animal friend.

Aristotle turning to exploring the concept of citizen distinguishes it from the resident, as has already been said that "the gar estin politwn what plithos Polis»(* the Polis is the citizenry that the form) . The citizen is the raw material of the city and not:

  • just the resident of a region.
  • a licensee the right of the enagein and the enagesthai.
  • the operator of a same origin.

The city is not merely nor assumes only community site for members of the. Οι άνθρωποι, contends Aristotle, forming cities to ensure well-being of either through full and self-sufficient life in the city. It seems, λοιπόν, that the city is senior product quality of acts, γιατί requires people who have developed superior moral and intellectual qualities as individuals within the total for the whole.
In particular, Aristotle examines the concept of "citizenship" with the use of the shape "lifting – position». So, First you give us those elements that do not prove that someone is a citizen and then will present the sufficient element for determining the.
The elements, λοιπόν, where is a necessary but not sufficient to characterise someone as a citizen is:
a) The place of residence ("the worst priest in which citizen estin oIkein"): cannot be classified one citizen depending on where it resides, why in the same place – here, in Athens – could inhabit and metics and slaves, but who had no political rights and could therefore not be classed citizens.

  • Οι metics were foreigners who had settled in Athens and formed a significant part of the Athenian population. It was recorded in a special register and pay annually a tax (12 drachmas men and 6 women), the «metoikion». Had no political rights, they could not participate in the administration of the State, or be in possession of estates. Dealt with trade and crafts and so, largely, support the economy of Athens. The Athenians used them in the army and the fleet, and at religious ceremonies and at «functions». Each metic was obliged to appoint a genuine Athenian citizen as guarantor or patron, who synallassotan on behalf of the State and guarantee for the conduct of. For his services to the State the metic could become "isotelis", that is equal to the genuine Athenian citizens at all,What were the taxes, rare but could become a citizen and in no way could take public positions.
  • Οι slaves considered form of ownership («res») and, of course, had no political rights. As stated elsewhere in the Policies ο Αριστοτέλης, the slave was a «ktima empsychon», necessary to put into action the inanimate tools and, as each "land", the slave was instrument intended to serve the General management of life (Political, 1253b 32). When the philosopher, the naturally slave (Why is there and put a slave, He was in a State of slavery due to war, etc.) It has inherently unfree morale that cannot consciously uses, «• olws oyk doulos has τὸ boyleytikon» (Political, 1059b 22) and therefore cannot be a member of a free society, a city State.

b) The right one's appearance in court as a plaintiff or as a defendant ("these ' of righteous oyd participants... and a fair»): cannot be considered a citizen, just because it has the right to appear in court as plaintiff or as defendant. And this, because people from other cities can have this right thanks to special agreements, written i.e. provisions that designate primarily the trade agreements among citizens of different cities. As they shall have the right to go to another city, to stay there and to seek from the courts awarding law.

  • «by symbols ": the «symbols» It was special agreements, mainly commercial. Elsewhere in the third book of Policies(1280a 35) Aristotle again making reference to "symbols" brings as an example the Tyrrinoys and the Karchidonioys, who come together with commercial and military agreements. But these were not enough to be considered to belong to the same political society as citizens. However, the economic agreements and commercial contracts between the cities were protected by laws that allow someone to present itself as a party in court without being a citizen of this city.
  • Also, According to the Stageriti philosopher, as stated elsewhere in the Policies (Political, 1275a 15), citizens should not be defined as children and young people who had not yet registered in the registers of citizens («ἀteleis»), those elders were not anymore their political rights and which characterized the decline («parikmakotas») και τέλος, those with judicial decision have lost the citizenship («ἀtimwn τῶν ' around), and the exiles (' and refugees '). For these views of our philosopher bottles using the adjective "Ikanon" at the end of the section.
B) «… citizen ἁplws. d.. eIpein. ἁplws "as the DEFINITION of" SUFFICIENT TREATY POLITI»
  1. Adequate criteria of definition of citizenshipAfter the reference to the criteria, that does not prove that someone is a citizen, Aristotle concludes in two adequate identification traits of the concept.
    Citizen, λοιπόν, είναι:a) He participates in the judiciary, who has the right to judge the Court and in particular as a member of the people's Court of Iliaias («crisis» metechein) andb) He participates in the political power, on the one hand, i.e. in the administration of the city's elected leaders and participating in the bodies that take the political decisions and legislate (House, εκκλησία του δήμου) («metechein ἀrchis»).
  1. The definition of citizenship: "citizen d ' oydeni τῶν ἄllwn orizetai ἁplws rather or priest in crisis and ἀrchis metechein».The definition returns the very essence of the city, because the city is symbiotic community governed by power relations among its members but the following trait: the power is exercised among equals. The citizen, the same and everyone else, has some form of parliamentary and judiciary in the city. Regardless of the type of regime, citizen is one who incorporates some judicial or parliamentary power, but conditions for the acquisition of citizenship vary depending on constitutions. Citizens are by definition free, Why are there and do so for the sake of themselves and not for the sake of other. There are and they do so for the sake of bliss that is the ultimate purpose of the existence of the city.

    Εν ολίγοις, the «aristotelikos» citizen is one who participates in the legislative, the Executive and the judicial authority.This participation is presented by the philosopher as the most important right, because thanks to this the citizen manages the political stuff, first. The participation in virtually all the functions of the city – State.
    Φυσικά, the philosopher mentioned in democratic Athens, the city of direct democracy, but in those City-States had similar constitutions, why in oligarchika or tyrannical regimes, as those of Sparta and Crete were not all citizens the right to participate in the functions of the State.
  1. The importance of participation in judicial functions
    Participation in judicial functions are, κατά τον Αριστοτέλη, absolutely important for the definition of the concept of "citizen". Plato himself, Besides, highlighted in Laws that the non-participation in these tantamount to non-participation in all of the functions of the city ("ὁ ἀkoinwnitos gar syndikazein igeitai wn exoysias of the city of the worst shareholder parapan is» 768b 2). A city with proper justice system, who works with sound laws, fairness and freedom, safeguard the rights of citizens (την ισονομία, the isigoria and the courage), helps to prevent social conflict and unrest, and ensures calm, serenity, Security and, by extension, the Bliss, that is the highest purpose of the city. But all this can only be achieved with the participation of all citizens in judicial functions. The above demonstrate, βέβαια, the existence of a high level of civilization, as the concept of Justice assumes people virtuous, moral and cultured.
  1. "were he in respect of similar plithos Ikanon τῶν aytarkeian his life»
    The new definition of the city compared with the citizen

    In the previous section, Aristotle stated that, to go to the definition of "State", You must first define the notion of "polis", that is the "ὅλον"· and to do this, must be preceded by the concept of "citizen", that is the "place" of "oloy". After, λοιπόν, gave the definition of citizenship, compose new definition for the city in connection with the citizen and his contribution to the basic trait of the city, in this self-sufficiency.
    The city, therefore, είναι:a) all citizens who have the right to participate in politics and the judiciary and
    b) the citizenry is plenty in number and capable in excellence, the virtue (mental and moral), not random and undeserving, able to ensure self-sufficiency in the city.Given that the city is a set of citizens, featuring powers, is maintained as a single unit that serves the final purpose, Bliss, but which requires sufficiency, why the self-sufficiency achieved in city, When all life needs are met, is synonymous with happiness, the "zin" εὖ . Οι άνθρωποι, as individuals and ensembles, because they are incomplete beings, is it possible to be happy, only if it is able to have adequate, which are within the city and from the city. The civil society as full existence, I didn't miss anything and can guarantee the "zin" εὖ, is the result of conscious political action of citizens. So, Aristotle prooikonomei continuity of analyses, where will state its views on the quality of the citizen and of the political and the traits of the great citizen and politician Lord.
    At another point in the Politikwn (1328b 16) Aristotle teaches that: "the ... more Polis estin worst plithos τὸ aytarkes tychon but respect zwin, … o what tygchani said that ean ekleipon, ἁplws aytarki ἀdynaton really is in the», and, as has already been mentioned in the 12the section, the self-sufficiency of the city is connected with the "zin" εὖ, the bliss of citizens, and not just material goods and commercial development, but the existence of defence capabilities, system of good administration and justice. So, the town became autonomous in all areas.



Our awareness of regime propaganda *

1) Two simple thing or: it "political system" and "status".

System: one ontotis parties, that through their mutual interactions, act collectively in their common interest.

Therefore, and a political system or regime, also is a ontotis parties, eg. institutions, που μέσω των αμοιβαίων αλληλεπιδράσεών τους λειτουργούν συλλογικά προς το κοινόν τους συμφέρον. Π.χ. ένα πολίτευμα μερικής αντιπροσωπεύσεως ή ένα πολιτικό σύστημα καθολικής αντιπροσωπεύσεως.

Regime: αποβλέπει όχι σε ένα κοινό ή συλλογικό συμφέρον, αλλά στο προσωπικό συμφέρον του μονάρχη ή των τυράννων. Π.χ., εκείνο της τυραννικής κομματοκρατίας που βιώνουμε τώρα.




SYSTEM = PLUS + ISTIMI = Stand together with all

STATUS = KATA + ISTIMI = Briskomai across from others

Texts of Aristotle in Ancient Greek displayable Translation