diogenis3Most people, Although they look like people, aren't people!
Those who love God do not have religion despite the same God.
Living a virtuous and natural life was the only way to be happy.
Man we call for desperate


Never before in the history of mankind the proverbial saying of Cynical philosopher Diogenes, "Man I Call " It was not as timely as today and this is not because people are today worse than it was in the 4th and 3rd century BCE (e). but because in our era – the era of rapid transmission of bad news via electronic Media and Stupefaction, awareness of the urgency of being People in every field of public and private life is almost universal.

Man we call desperately in national and international politics that to put some order in the chaos and confusion, which prevails everywhere and ask a man in public administration, in the health sector, education – there – par excellence in the small society, in our apartment building, in our company and in the same family, the miniature of society.

Like Diogenes all the "People" keeping our own Lantern, We are looking for Man in every sense of the Word – Man with humanity, with common sense, with LOGIC with nature, with ethical principles and values, with lofty goals and ideals, with self-esteem and pride. The sad, βέβαια, is that most of us (Fortunately not all) We got ever bother to look first for humans within us, other we leave unchecked the common homunculus and cower on our lives.

Did frankly and courageously the self-critical – found the time or inclination to do so. You had the intention or disposition even to discover your own flaws and bring out your own virtues· and if you did, they were usually completely occasionally and casually and so it is not entitled to judge others, you have done or are doing it daily. Σε κάθε περίπτωση, in today's suffocating atmosphere of vulgarity, of injustice, violence and sybaritismoy, I believe that it would be useful to take (all of us ) a little light within us and around us with the lantern of Diogenes, i.e. with the philosophy of, in other words, to study and if EFARMOSOYME, the deliberately forgotten and frivolously misunderstood Cynical Philosophy.

The Number µ Kynis, like philosophy, born in ancient Greece, from reaction to the absurdity of Republican incumbent. The Cynical philosophers accused resented defiantly culture of their times. H true, yet, is that not resented the culture itself but they had objected to the effects. The cynic philosopher watched the society around like a huge Madhouse, or theatre, where daily given silly performances that do not mean anything and just not any objective, but simplycause more confusion and dizziness in humans.

Resisting very strongly in this type of culture of domination of the absurd on the clever and strong on the weak, Diogenes raised his voice to Alexander, telling him, "Let me hide the Sun"! The allegorical or literal, This phrase of Cynical Diogenes, affects us today. Many people steal our smile and hide the "Sun" many masters powered mechanical chasing empty illusions of wealth, strength and reputation, crashing mercilessly those who stand in their way.

"Let us hide the Sun" booyn, whisper or aloud, those who manage, within the General discount principles and values of today's culture of consumption, and despite the blurred and distorted images of reality, to retain traces of common sense and pure consciousness, hoping still to something better. In the sad picture of ancient society the cynicism had react dynamically, Maybe some of them, sometimes even with extreme way, in a desperate attempt to diminish the pedestals of those who hid them in "Sun".

Revolted peacefully against the bad effects of the culture of the time and sending us a resounding timeless message to try to do ourselves today. I once found some among us, even a few, to strongly demand that all those who conceal the Sun of hope to make the edge, bash and ximerwsoyn brighter days for all of us; This is the challenge – "perhaps only for romantics and the ivory-towered", I countered the realists and pessimists.

Let's xanarixoyme a glance, on basic principles of Cynical philosophy through the pages of a short but concise essay and said let's see what positive and practical we can learn that will help to illuminate our lives. The down-under, If it is difficult to change the society, in our hand is, If you want it, to change ourselves and the extent that they affect us the wrongs around us.

Moreover, as you will see, most Cynics had and pungent humour, thing that makes reading enjoyable. Of course there are opponents of Cynicism, who overemphasize some intensely provocative behaviors of certain Shameless, but it was individual. Άλλωστε, everyday life is full of negative patterns and stimuli and we all need positive messages to take a deep breath and do detoxify our thinking.

The Cynicism manifested itself as a movement in the 4th p.k. e. αιώνα

As opposition to the established way of life that was often incompatible with common sense. The philosophy of Cynicism was intended to succeed the man through voluntary apoxenwsis equanimity by the society, and obtain bliss and self-sufficiency with as simple as possible, affordable and natural means. For the cynics, the virtuous life consisted in the victory of man over the wishes of. The domination of reason on passions It was a basic tenet of Cynical thinking. The study of philosophy of Cynicism is not an easy task as there are preserved authentic texts, except for a few exceptions. In Dictionary of the history of ideas mentioned that the problem of Cynicism is in essence a problem relating to sources of.

Our knowledge about the cynicism and the cynics is based primarily on information subsequent writers from references found scattered in many ancient texts, the rich collection of jokes, and in letters of questionable authenticity that saw the light much later. For this reason the interpretation of individual proposals and abstracts should be done with reservation and always under the light of the history of ideas associated with the cynics. This is just due to the fact that researchers sometimes end up in different views.

There are of course some central tenets of Cynicism on which most agree. The Cynics, by their example and live the simple life, trying to relieve the human suffering that was causing the wrong lifestyle. Πάντως, most Cynics apokiryttan not completely conventional lifestyle, Although chose their friends only among their Cynical companion. One of the reasons was that the Cynics believed that most people, Although they look like people, aren't people!

Cynics believed that most people were mistaken to consider themselves of smart and courteous, When in reality it was merely camouflaged cheats and royfianoi and for this reason was not real people. Diogenes expressed this Cynical view, When you depart from a public bath. Asked if it was many people bathers, and he replied that "few people but large bathers "

Another reason that cynics chose for their friends only other Cynics were their religious beliefs. Cynics generally disdained the prevailing religion of their time. Were not available or time polytheϊstikes or monotheistic superstitions and beliefs. Was skeptical as to the religious rituals and the thought games were created for recreation and solace of the crowd.

Not attached any value in their theogonies and anthrwpomorfikoys myths of the gods. Cynics have tried to eliminate the religious practices, often with sarcasm and ridicule, or denunciation and condemnation, and basically adopting behaviours that were against these beliefs and practices. The reason they condemned the prevailing religions was because it had failed to provide practical guidance in day-to-day affairs and this happens so far.

Nevertheless, the Cynics weren't atheists and were not completely disavow the whole organized religion. Yet, believed was God's envoys, and as such did not need organized religion, because those who love God do not have religion despite the same God. Cynics believed was the de facto leaders and the only true men of politics and religion, that worked for the enlightenment of the masses. They sought to live in conformity with the clearly defined objectives of and under the guidance of a freely selected purpose of God, Despite becoming followers of a religion through counterfeit rituals and other fraudulent practices.

None of the writings of Shameless is not entirely. The most extensive ancient reference to the Cynics is the 6th book, "Bion doctrines and sutras of eydokimisantwn in philosophy", the EC Cilicia Greek historiographer of the philosophy of antiquity, Diogenes Laertioy, they lived during the 3rd µ e.. αιώνα. Though and this source was challenged as to the reliability of some later Scholastics.

As written by Luis E. Navia in the critical study of the Classical Cynicism, the Cynical movement is considered as one of the most provocative phenomena of intellect in the history of the West. The Cynics, with their preaching, that was something like a Social Gospel and political protest, aimed at undermining the Customs and compliance of their contemporaries. By the first decade of the 4th p.k. e. αιώνα, soon after the execution of Socrates, until the final moments of the Roman Empire where the visible traces of classical era sbinontan from hordes of Barbarians and katapnigontan from the obscurantism of Christianity, the Cynics were a familiar presence in the classical world.

Their revolutionary message sounded so on purchases from ordinary people as well as in the courts of rulers and palaces emperors. Πάντως, It should be clarified that the Cynicism has never been a monolithic philosophical movement µ e certain "philosophical doctrine", i.e. There was what we might call the school of philosophy, The genuine philosophical thought never tucked into molds and in no case can become "philosophical doctrine" doctrine and philosophy are diametrically opposites such as philosophy and religion and as the flame and ice.

According to the study of Luis E. Navia, the Cynicism constituted, more than anything else, an amorphous movement of intellectual and social rebellion against many beliefs and practices. By the end of the 19th century several fastidious began to engage seriously µ e cynicism and its origin. The interest manifested especially by the time when Ferdinand Dummler published his thesis titled Antisthenika (Antisthenica), it 1882. The Dummler believed that he had discovered in Plato's work a whole series of aggressive reports about Antisthenes, the alleged founder of Cynicism. Then, βέβαια, Dummler polemithikan positions as extreme by other Scholastics, While the role of Antisthenes as founder of the Faculty of letters was not put into question.

The term Canine, According to the sources, derived from the Cynosarges, one of the big three gymnasiums of Athens, that was in the southeast of the city, immediately outside the wall. There it is said that he taught the Antisthenes the Cynical teaching. The Cynosarges got t΄onoma because some time the Athenians offered sacrifices to Hercules, a dog breed Argos grabbed the animal's thighs from the altar and then persecuted ran and left them in place that. Surprised the Athenians rushed to consult the Oracle of Delphi in what way had to atone for Hercules. The Oracle they received was to establish the sanctuary in the party that the dog left the thysiasma. Actually, the Athenians founded at this point Sanctuary which they named Cynosarges, from the name of the dog (dog + Argos).

The Cynosarges, λοιπόν, was high school for the nothoys, i.e. non-genuine (from father and mother) young Athenians. The nothoi were Athenian citizenship because they were born of a slave mother, or foreign, or whore. Nothoi were also those who were born by Athenian parents who were not legally married. In the Cynosarges was built and a famous sanctuary dedicated to (also illegitimate) the hero Hercules. It is worth noting that exercised and Themistocles illegitimate s due to a foreign mother who said that has made many attempts to get genuine young Athenians to follow him in Cynosarges and thus eliminated the distinction. Not managed, yet. Though, later tradition the term Canine comes from the lifestyle of the Cynical philosophers:

"However dogs µ Areskei µ fienysthai life ' RTD.

In antiquity, the dogs were the symbol of the lack of shame. Σε κάθε περίπτωση, any of the two interpretations is correct, It is worth noting that the Cynics had agreed to have as their common symbol for a dog (tree), as illustrated by the headstone of Diogenes of Sinwpea. Aristotle justified label Cynics in the following ways:

> The indifference towards their lifestyle looks with that of dogs. They walked barefoot, ate in public places, κλπ.

> The dog (Canis) It is an animal that does not feel shame. Cynics have implemented the adiantropia as a lifestyle, not that I thought was inferior of modesty, but senior this.

> The dog is an animal-keeper, and cynics guarded the principles of their philosophy with great zeal.

>The dog is an animal that lacks distinction in apart friends from enemies. So the Cynics recognize as friends those who are positive toward their philosophy and take them with kindness, While deal with barking out those debts.

The Cynicism started from the moral vision of Socrates who was referring to the necessity and measure of altruism. With this moral element matched the dialectic and rhetorical methods of Eleatikwn and Sophists. But diestrepse and the two influences from their original use: the Socratic ethics has changed from the cynics in an undistinguished obsolescence of knowledge, politeness and common decency, While the methods of Eleatikwn and the Sophists were in the hands of Cynical often organ dispute (Eristic Method) rather than an instrument for the pursuit of truth.

H Julie Piering, Professor and researcher of ancient Greek philosophy at the University of Arkansas µ, in Little Rock in the United States, writes among other things: "The Cynics are one of the smaller schools Swkratikes. In fact there was never a "well-organized school" .

Cynics identified the virtuous life by living in accordance with nature

Therefore disdained conventional values, as the wealth and social position, that they thought that it was contrary to nature and logic. The symbatikotates is not inherently bad, but to the cynics were often absurd and deserved to perigeloyntai because it prevented the good life with the imposing codes of conduct opposed µ e nature, reason and freedom. For the cynics virtue was the only good and virtue mean life of self-sufficiency, Suppression of desires and needs. They gained a reputation for fanatical antikonfor µ tissues because of indifference to pleasure and other people.

The Cynics laughed at the importance ascribed to the Olympics, the great thieves who ran the shrines and stole Ramblas, politicians, and philosophers who were running in their backyards, fashion, and prayers for fame and fortune. Disdained and theories. The primary interests were ethically, but understand the ethics more like lifestyle rather than doctrine needed explanations. From the moment someone relieved himself from the rules that prevented the moral life might say that it was truly free.

For them the exercise was essential. Such exercise allows the Cynical to criticize freely the stupid, and often violent, lifestyle of his contemporaries, systematically underestimating the shallowest principles of ancient Athenian culture. Instead of n΄askoyn the body for the sake of a victory in the Olympics or in battle, or for natural health, the Cynics were exercising their bodies for the sake of the soul. The cynic way of life marked by the same, but also by the Stoics who followed them, the shortest path to virtue. Although often claimed that they had found the shortest and perhaps safer path to the virtuous life, recognize the difficulties this route.

The Cynics are one of the smaller schools Swkratikes. The Cynical School founded by Antisthenes, He was a follower of Socrates. The Cynicism was more a lifestyle than a philosophical system. Cynics believed and declared that living a virtuous and natural life was the only way to be happy. This was the central ethical doctrine which they themselves from the Socrates. While the cynics, virtue is capable but also a necessary condition to achieve the happiness and the scorn of enjoyment is the utmost delight!

The essence of the original Cynical ideology of Hercules (Cynical Pedagogy) It was the necessity of dual education: body and soul both forms of education were equally necessary for those who wanted to learn to live and to act correctly. The virtue, invoke the Cynics, can be taught. It adds one value to anything other than the virtue, όπως π.χ. in delight, It is harmful and must be avoided and rejected for not one trapped.

Cynics in fact to the conventional way of life because they believed that he was neither virtuous nor natural.

How right were. They thought that the society brings value to things that do not bring happiness, as to the wealth, beauty, social position, the reputation, the correctness. The virtuous person has n΄aporriptei these symbatikotites. The Cynics rejected traditional values of their times, and once, in order to prove their position, disdained µ ΄enan symbatikotates way you sokarize. Accused, μάλιστα, How were known to others with a dismissive sense of superiority, more correctly, disgust, I would say I.

Cynics often paromoiazontai with the greatest Street orators who ironically critics and exorkizoyn passersby to abandon the futile way of life. The aversion of the shameless to conventional values expressed more with live suit and less µ e their words. The original model was the penniless Cynical! You see people repoyme in excesses when forgetting the axiom: "Moderation" even the best philosophy can degenerate if he who defends is not on constant alert.


While the cynics, virtue does not require a lot of knowledge

To anyone studying mathematics, music or literature did not guarantee happiness. Even in philosophy, I only had value for them was the moral. The ordinary pleasures of life was for the cynics not just negligible but harmful to the extent that hinder the free functioning of e l I s t. They considered that the wealth, the popularity and power tend to reconcile the authority of reason and to distort the soul in order to shift from natural to unnatural and spurious.

The man is there for himself and only within himself, and the exalted aim of is should be the virtue through self-knowledge and self-realization, always in compliance with the stipulations of logic and away from irrelevant symbatikotites of society and the State. To achieve this objective, the disrepute and poverty were seen as advantages, because turn humans into itself, increasing self-control and purging the dianoisi from internal rust. The good man is a wise man who does not want anything, as the gods, i.e. the self-sufficient.

The very essence of Cynical philosophy was the denial of benefits of social comity

Within a society dressed in accumulated feint an advanced compatibility, the return to natural was impossible without strong shock of intrinsic sensibilities of members of Cynical movement. It was therefore expected, the founders of the Cynical philosophical system to harsh critic strictly and humiliated by their fellow human beings. As reaction to contempt, the Cynics were showing off a epirmeni superiority. Nevertheless, It would be unfair and unreasonable the eccentricities of the few to be seen as the hallmarks of Cynical philosophy or even worse, as condemnation of the views of the shameless.

Than,What we can know, Cynics not developed metaphysical theories, epistemology or philosophy of language. Indeed, It has been reported that Diogenes was deride Plato for the anti-aging research areas. But even on the moralizing, the Cynics were not systematic thinkers. Με άλλα λόγια, does not support the ethical positions in arguments. To gain followers, used smart – sarkastikoys hints, pikrocholes or scurrilous aversions, to and satire, Despite arguments. Cynics believed in the idea of absolute freedom for every human being and does not feel obliged to comply with the rules establishing the power.

One of the causes of their apoxenwsis from the society was that they considered themselves citizens of the world, members of a global community, not a nation or a city. In terms of the history of ideas, the Cynicism as a practical-philosophical movement started with the Sophists. The largest part of the theoretical and ideological thrust of substance came from the Sophists theory of knowledge, the radical opposition to the society and the symbatikotites through the adoption of natural law and a some egwpatheia. From the pedagogy of Sophists came also the interest for practical ethical questions and educational problems.

It is confirmed that the Cynics thought a r e t h, as the only good, not just the Supreme good as wrongly said Socrates

For those Virtue meant self-sufficiency, Suppression of desires and needs. The noted, μάλιστα, to demonstrate their poverty, their opposition to the pleasures and their indifference to Convention, thus earning the reputation of a fanatical non-conformist. The philosophy of the shameless, influenced the Stoics with whom he had some common philosophical goals. The main cynicism after Antisthenes was Diogenes of Sinope and the student of the Crates. In those mentioned and the Roman Emperor-philosopher Marcus Aurelius the famous work of, "Unto Itself" which means they knew and had himself been influenced by cynicism. It is worth noting that this project wrote directly in Greek.

The number of Cynics that followed after those three famous Cynics, just continued some traditions, simplified lifestyles, and maintained some Cynical authorities received from the early stages of the movement, authorities chased the aforementioned big three of Cynicism. Yet, because, as I said before, Cynics don't ever staged a formal School with strictly defined philosophy, There were notable differences between the pupils of Diogenes, who adopt selective only whatever ideas they liked. So we meet persons with completely different temperament and appearance to referred to as Cynics, While tendencies inherent in primitive Cynicism are found to have sometime lead to completely different conclusions.

There is no doubt that many people got bacteria and backpack and imagined that this alone made them disciples of Diogenes. However, it should be clarified that the testimony of the texts shows that during this period there were not so many charlatans that related to cynicism who appeared later in the Roman Empire. Moreover, the idea attracted cynicism from time to time philosophers interested schools especially to accentuate the chaos that separates the Wise Man from that which is the norm for the people.

@ Peace Lily

"ANThRWPON ZITO principles of Cynical Philosophy"
"Diogenes of Sinope, The cynic Philosopher "
"Greek Cynics"


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